Researchers have developed new fluorescent probes called hydrocyanines that can be used to detect and measure the presence of reactive oxygen species – molecules implicated in a variety of inflammatory diseases, including cancer and atherosclerosis- in living cells, tissue samples and in vivo.
The researchers have created six hydrocyanine dyes to date – hydro-Cy3, hydro-Cy5, hydro-Cy7, hydro-IR-676, hydro-IR-783 and hydro-ICG – but say that there are potentially 40 probes that could be created. The dyes vary in their ability to detect intracellular or extracellular reactive oxygen species and by their emission wavelength – from 560 to 830 nanometers.
Fluorescing at higher wavelengths allows the hydrocyanine dyes to be used for deep tissue imaging in vivo, a capability that dihydroethidium (DHE), the current “gold standard” for imaging reactive oxygen species, does not have. The dyes also have other advantages over DHE.